RUMUS 16 TENSES BAHASA INGGRIS   Leave a comment

RUMUS 16 TENSES

Kata Kerja

Kata Kerja adalah bagian inti dari Tenses Bahasa Inggris. Kata kerja atau Verb pada rumus-rumus Tenses di blog ini, Kata kerja atau Verb ini sering saya singkat V saja. Jadi kalau V+ing artinya sama dengan Verb+ing, sering juga saya tulis sebagai “Ving” saja agar mudah.

Kata kerja dalam bahasa Inggris ada banyak bentuknya: V1, V2, V3, Ving.

Kata Kerja bentuk 1 atau saya singkat V1, yaitu kata kerja dasar, seperti: drink, go, write, read, participate, learn, study, dan sebagainya. Ada kata kerja bentuk ke 2, sering saya singkat V2. Kata kerja bentuk 3 ya V3. Serta Kata Kerja bentuk ING atau saya singkat Ving. Bagaimana cara menggunakan bentuk-bentuk kata kerja tersebut? Ada di masing-masing pelajaran Tenses Bahasa Inggris.

Kata Kerja Beraturan (Regular Verb):

Artinya ya mempunyai keteraturan bentuknya, ada rumusnya misalnya ditambah “D” atau “ED” seperti: live – lived – lived, play, played, played.

 

Kata Kerja TIDAK Beraturan (Irregular Verb):

Misalnya kata kerja “drink” berturut-turut untuk bentuk ke 1 sampai 3: drink-drank-drunk. Satu contoh lain lagi: break-broke-broken

1. Present Tense (Waktu Sekarang)

a. Simple Present Tense (Waktu Sekarang Sederhana)

Rumus :

+ } S + V1 + O/C

– } S + Do/does + not + V1 + O/C

? } Do/does + S + V1 + O/C

Example :

+ } Sisca Reads book everyday

– } Sisca does not Read book everyday

? } does Sisca Read book everyday

Yes He does / No He does not (doesn’t)

For I, We, You, They = do

He, She, It = Does

Contoh kalimat :

(+) She is a new people here.

(+) He plays football every morning

(-) She isn’t a new people here.

(-) He does not playing football every morning.

(?) Is she a new people here?

(?) How playing football every morning?

b. Present Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sekarang)

Menerangkan suatu perbuatan yabg sedang berlangsungpada waktu sekarang.

Rumus :

+ } S + Be + V1 + ing + O/C            >>           + } They are playing badmintoon now

– } S + Be + not + V1 + ing + O/C >>           – } They are not playing badmintoon now

? } Be + S + V1 + ing + O/C            >>           ? } Are they palaying badmintoon now ?

Yes They are / no they are not

For I = am

They, we, you = are

He, She, It = Is

Contoh dalam kalimat :

(+) He is playing badminton now

(-) He isn’t playing badminton now.

(?) Is he playing badminton now.

c. Present Perfect Tense (Waktu Sempurna Sekarang)

Rumus :

subject+auxiliary verb+main verb

Contoh :

(+) you have eaten mine.

(-) she has not been to Rome

(?) have you finished?

d. Present Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sempurna Sekarang)

Rumus :

(+): S + have/has + been + Ving
(-): S + have/has + not + been + Ving
(?): Have/has + S + been + Ving

Contoh :

(+) She has been going to Malang since evening.

(+) We have been riding a horse for three days

(-) She hasn’t been going to Malang since evening.

(-) We haven’t been riding a horse for three days.

(?) Has she been going to Malang ?

(?) Have He been riding a horse for three days ?

2. Past Tense (Waktu Lampau)

a. Simple Past Tense (Waktu Lampau Sederhana)

Rumus :

+} S+Be+Was/Were+O/C

-} S+Be+Was/Were+not+O/C

?} Be+Was/Were+ S+O/C

Example :

+} We were at school yesterday

-} We were not at school yesterday

?} were we at school yesterday ?

For I, He, She, It = Was

They, we, you = were

Contoh :

(+) I saw a good film last night

(+) He came here last month

(-) I saw not a good film last night

(-) He came not last month

(?) Saw I a good film last night

(?) Came He here last month

b. Past Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Lampau)

Rumus :

(+): S + was/were + Ving
(-): S + was/were + NOT + Ving
(?): Was/Were + S + Ving

Contoh :

(+) He was watching television all afternoon last week

(+) They were talking about sport when I met him

(-) He wasn’t watching television all afternoon last week

(-) They weren’t talking about sport when I met him

(?) Was He watching television all afternoon last week

(?) Were they talking about sport when I met him

c. Past Perfect Tense (Waktu Sempurna Lampau)

Rumus :

subject+auxiliary verb HAVE+main verb

(+): S + had + V3
(-): S + had + not + V3
(?): Had + S + V3

Contoh :

(+) When my brother arrived , I had painted my motor cycle

(+) The ship had left before I arrived

(-) When my brother arrived , I hadn’t painted my motor cycle

(-) The ship hadn’t left before I arrived

(?) Had I my motor cycle , when my brother arrived ?

(?) Had the ship left before I arrived?

d. Past Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sempurna Lampau)

Rumus :

subject+auxiliary verb HAVE+auxiliary verb BE+main verb

Contoh :

(+) They had been living there for two month

(+) When they washed my drees , your father had been playing badminton

(-) They hadn’t been living there for two month

(-) When they washed my dress , your father hadn’t been playing badminton

(?) Had they been living there for two month?

(?) When they washed my dress , had your father been playing badminton ?

3. Future Tense (Akan Datang)

a. Simple Future Tense (Waktu Akan Datang Sederhana)

Rumus :

subject+auxiliary verb WILL+main verb

Contoh :

(+) I will visit to yogyakarta tomorrow.

(+) he will met girl friend by seven o’clock

(?) Will he go to America next month?

(+) President shall at Nederland the day after tomorrow.

(-) President shall not at Nederland the day after tomorrow.

(?) Shall President at Nederland the day after tomorrow?

b. Future Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Akan Datang)

Rumus :

subject+auxiliary verb WILL+auxiliary verb BE+main verb

Contoh :

(+) I will be writing a comic.

(+) I will be studying tomorrow night.

(-) I will not writing a comic.

(-) I will not be studying tomorrow night.

(?) Will I be writing a comic ?

(?) Will I be studying tomorrow night ?

c. Future Perfect Tense (Waktu Sempurna Akan Datang)

Rumus :

subject+auxiliary verb WILL+auxiliary verb HAVE+main verb

Contoh :

(+) Iwill havefinishedby 10am.

(+) Youwill haveforgottenme by then.

(-) Shewillnothavegoneto school.

(-) Wewillnothaveleft.

(?) Willyou havearrived?

(?) Willthey havereceivedit?

d. Future Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sempurna Akan Datang)

Rumus :

subject+auxiliary verb WILL+auxiliary verb HAVE+auxiliary verb BE+main verb

Contoh :

(+) I will have been reading a news paper.

(+) He will have been listening music.

(-) I will haven’t been reading a news paper.

(-) He will haven’t listening a music.

(?) Will I have been riding a news paper ?

(?) Will He have listening a music ?

4. Past Future Tense (Akan Datang Di Waktu Lampau)

a. Past Future Tense (Waktu Akan Datang Di Waktu Lampau)

Rumus :

Positif: S + would + V1

Negatif: S + would + not + V1

Tanya:  Would + S + V1

Contoh :

(+) He would come if you invited him.

(+) They would buy a home the previous day.

(-) He wouldn’t come if invited him.

(-) They wouldn’t buy a home the previous day.

(?) Would He come if invited him ?

(?) Would they buy a home the previous day ?

b. Past Future Continuous Tense (Waktu Akan Sedang Terjadi Diwaktu Lampau)

Rumus :

Positif: S + would + be + Ving
Negatif: S + would + not + be + Ving
Tanya: Would + S + be + Ving

Contoh :

(+) I should be swimming at this time the following day.

(+) I shall be sliping at 10 o’clock tomorrow.

(-) I shouldn’t be swimming at this time the following day.

(-) I shalln’t be sleeping at 10 o’clock tomorrow.

(?) Shall I be swimming at this time the following day ?

(?) Shall I be sleeping at10 o’clock tomorrow ?

c. Past Future Perfect Tense (Waktu Akan Sudah Selesai Di Waktu Lampau)

Rumus :

Positif: S + would + have + V3
Negatif: S + would + not + have + V3
Tanya: Would + S + have + V3

Contoh :

(+) He would have graduated if he had studies hard.

(+) Nonok will have studied moth by the end of this week.

(-) He wouldn’t have gone if he had met his darling

(-) Nonok will have not studied month by the end of this week

(?) Would He have gone if he had met his darling ?

(?) Will Nonok have studied month by the end of this week ?

d. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense

(Waktu Yang Sudah Sedang Berlangsung Pada Waktu Lampau)

Rumus :

Positif: S + would + have + been + Ving
Negatif: S + would + not + have + been + Ving
Tanya: Would + S + have + been + Ving

Contoh :

Rianawati would have been speaking English for two years

(+) Mrs. Anisa Munif would have been walking here for seventeen years

(+) Rianawati would have been speaking English for two years

(-) Mrs. Anisa Munif wouldn’t have been walking here for seventeen year

(-) Rianawati wouldn’t have been speaking English for two years

(?) Would Mrs. Anisa Munif have been walking here for seventeen years?

(?) Would Rianawati have been speaking English for two years?

 

http://javasun3.wordpress.com/2010/03/03/rumus-16-tenses-bahasa-inggris/

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Posted Maret 25, 2012 by srinurazizah in artikel

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Claims of speed readers   Leave a comment

This article may contain excessive, poor or irrelevant examples. You can improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples. See Wikipedia’s guide to writing better articles for further suggestions. (December 2007)

The World Championship Speed Reading Competition stresses reading comprehension as critical. The top contestants typically read around 1,000 to 2,000 words per minute with approximately 50% comprehension or above. The world champion is Anne Jones with 4,700 words per minute with 67% comprehension. The 10,000 word/min claimants have yet to reach this level.[citation needed]

Much controversy is raised over this point. This is mainly because a reading comprehension level of 50% is deemed unusable by some educationalists (Carver 1992). Speed reading advocates claim that it is a great success and even state that it is a demonstration of good comprehension for many purposes (Buzan 2000). The trade-off between “speed” and comprehension must be analyzed with respect to the type of reading that is being done, the risks associated with mis-understanding due to low comprehension, and the benefits associated with getting through the material quickly and gaining information at the actual rate it is obtained.

Howard Stephen Berg was published in the 1990 Guinness Book of World Records as the Fastest Reader in the World.

The Guinness Book of World Records reviewed the evidence for his claim, and it resulted in their publishing it in their 1990 record book.There is also a question on scanning, or skimming being considered “reading”. Berg himself states that he only garners the concepts and not the details of the text.

In January 1998 the United States Federal Trade Commission filed a complaint against Howard Stephen Berg for false and deceptive advertising.

U.S. President John F. Kennedy was a proponent of speed reading and encouraged his staff to take lessons.

 

Sumber : http://www.articleeducation.com

 

Posted Maret 25, 2012 by srinurazizah in artikel

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English Grammar Adjective   Leave a comment

Adjectives describe or give information about nouns or pronouns.

For example:-

The grey dog barked. (The adjective grey describes the noun “dog“.)

The good news is that the form of an adjective does not change. It does not matter if the noun being modified is male or female, singular or plural, subject or object.

Some adjectives give us factual information about the noun – age, size colour etc (fact adjectives – can’t be argued with). Some adjectives show what somebody thinks about something or somebody – nice, horrid, beautiful etc (opinion adjectives – not everyone may agree).

If you are asked questions with which, whose, what kind, or how many, you need an adjective to be able to answer.

There are different types of adjectives in the English language:

  • Numeric: six, one hundred and one
  • Quantitative: more, all, some, half, more than enough
  • Qualitative: colour, size, smell etc.
  • Possessive: my, his, their, your
  • Interrogative: which, whose, what
  • Demonstrative: this, that, those, these

!Note The articles a, an, and the and the possessives my, our, your, and their are also adjectives.

Opinion

Adjectives can be used to give your opinion about something.

good, pretty, right, wrong, funny, light, happy, sad, full, soft, hard etc.

For example:

He was a silly boy.

Size

Adjectives can be used to describe size.

big, small, little, long, tall, short, same as, etc.

For example:

  • “The big man.” or “The big woman”.

 

Age

Adjectives can be used to describe age.

For example:

  • “He was an old man.” or “She was an old woman.”

 

Shape

Adjectives can be used to describe shape.

round, circular, triangular, rectangular, square, oval, etc.

For example:

  • “It was a square box.” or “They were square boxes.”

 

Colour

Adjectives can be used to describe colour.

blue, red, green, brown, yellow, black, white, etc.

For example:

  • “The blue bag.” or “The blue bags”.

 

Origin

Adjectives can be used to describe origin .

For example:-

  • “It was a German flag.” or “They were German flags.”

 

Material

Adjectives can be used to describe material.

  • “It was a cotton cushion.” orThey were cotton cushions.”

 

Distance

Adjectives can be used to describe distance. l — o — n — g / short

long, short, far, around, start, high, low, etc.

For example:

  • “She went for a long walk.” or “She went for lots of long walks.”

 

Temperature

Adjectives can be used to describe temperature.

cold, warm, hot, cool, etc.

For example:

  • “The day was hot.” or “The days were hot.”

 

Time

Adjectives can be used to describe time.

late, early, bed, nap, dinner, lunch, day, morning, night, etc.

For example:

  • “She had an early start.”

 

Purpose

Adjectives can be used to describe purpose. (These adjectives often end with “-ing”.)

For example:

  • “She gave them a sleeping bag.” or She gave them sleeping bags.”

!Note – In each case the adjective stays the same, whether it is describing a masculine, feminine, singular or plural noun.

When using more than one adjective to modify a noun, the adjectives may be separated by a conjunction (and) or by commas (,).

For example:

  • “Her hair was long and blonde.” or “She had long, blonde hair.”

 

More examples:

Adjective Pretty Serious Fast Quiet
Example She was a pretty girl. He was a serious boy. It was a fast car. They were quiet children.

!Note – Adjectives that go immediately before the noun are called attributive adjectives.

Adjectives can also be used after some verbs. They do not describe the verb, adverbs do that. Adjectives after a verb describe the subject of the verb (usually a noun or pronoun). They are called predicative adjectives.

For example:

  • “David looks tired.” The subject (in this case David) is being described as tired not the verb to look.

 

http://www.inggriskilat.com/2009/12/english-grammar-adjectives_23.html

Posted Maret 21, 2012 by srinurazizah in artikel

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Tips belajar kosa kata bahasa Inggris yang efektif   Leave a comment

Belajar banyak kosa kata baru merupakan suatu hal yang penting dalam berkomunikasi menggunakan bahasa Inggris. Namun, seperti yang sebagian besar dari kalian mungkin sadari, hal tersebut bisa juga menjadi suatu hal yang membosankan.

Setiap orang unik mempunyai caranya masing-masing dalam belajar.ada beberapa metode di bawah ini dan terus lakukan metode yang menurut kamu paling menyenangkan atau efektif, atau kamu bisa menerapkan berbagai macam metode sehingga kamu tidak mudah bosan!

Ada dua cara mempelajari vocabulary  antara lain:

1. “Secara kebetulan”. Ini berarti bahwa siswa belajar dengan atau tanpa disadari menggunakan ‘petunjuk konteks’ ketika mereka membaca maupun mendengar.

2. “Belajar langsung”. Dalam hal ini siswa memang berusaha untuk mempelajari kosa kata baru.

Kosa kata mana yang harus dipelajari?

Kamu tidak bisa mempelajari setiap kata yang kamu dengar dan baca setiap hari. Jadi, kosa kata apa yang penting untuk kamu pelajari?

pelajari kosa kata yang penting dan terkait dengan bidang studi atau bidang kerjamu.
pelajari kosa kata yang kamu baca atau dengar terus menerus.
jangan pelajari terlalu banyak kosa kata yang tidak lazim dan tidak berguna.

4 Metode Terbaik:
1. Lihat, Tutup, Tebak, Cek

Inilah cara belajar kosa kata yang diterapkan pada anak-anak. Kamu bisa membuatnya lebih menarik dengan menggunakan berbagai macam warna. Misalnya dengan membuat  daftar tulisan seperti di bawah ini, dengan menggunakan berbagai macam warna silih berganti dari atas hingga bawah dan memastikan bahwa setiap baris menonjol:

meja    =  table
kulkas  =  fridge
mobil   =  car
pohon   =  tree

Kemudian tutuplah kolom kosa kata bahasa Inggris dengan selembar kertas. Geser kertas ke bawah setiap kamu menerjemahkan kata per kata dari bahasa Indonesia ke bahasa Inggris. Kemudian ulangi kegiatan yang sama namun kali ini dengan menutupi kolom bahasa Indonesia.

2. Catatan tempel (Post-Its)

Temukan sebanyak mungkin kata maupun frase yang ingin kamu pelajari. Tulislah setiap kata atau frase tersebut pada sebuah catatan tempel dan, jika kamu bisa, sertakanlah gambar yang dapat membantumu memvisualisasikan kata atau frase tersebut. Tempelkan catatanmu di sekitar rumah atau kantormu, pada tempat-tempat yang biasa kamu lihat setiap hari (di pintu, dekat saklar lampu, dekat telpon, di samping komputer, atau bahkan di toples kue). Setiap kamu lihat salah satu dari catatanmu, ucapkanlah kata yang telah kamu tulis tersebut. Lakukan hal ini setiap saat. Kemudian setelah beberapa hari, gantilah dengan kata-kata lainnya. Cara ini merupakan strategi belajar yang sangat efektif bagi sebagian orang.

3. Kartu flash

Cara ini merupakan metode favorit bagi mereka yang sedang belajar bahasa. Biasanya kartu-kartu kosong berwarna ini digabungkan menjadi satu dengan menggunakan ring. Caranya gampang. Tulis kata bahasa Inggris pada satu sisi dan terjemahannya dalam bahasa Indonesia di sisi lainnya. Tulis sebanyak mungkin sesuai kemauanmu. Banyak hal yang bisa dilakukan dengan menggunakan kartu-kartu tersebut, termasuk strategi berikut ini:

1.Buat tumpukan kartu dengan menggunakan 15 kartu, di mana kata dalam bahasa Inggrisnya menghadap ke atas.
2.Ambil kartu pertama dan tebak artinya dalam bahasa Indonesia.
3.Cek apakah kamu benar. Jika kamu benar, sisihkan kartu tersebut ke tumpukan ‘kartu benar’. Jika kamu salah, letakkan kartu tersebut di bawah tumpukan kartu utama.
4.Lanjutkan kegiatan ini hingga semua 15 kartu tersebut berada di tumpukan ‘kartu benar’.
Metode ini merupakan cara positif dalam belajar kosa kata baru. Kamu harus menebak dengan benar atau jika salah, kamu harus terus mencoba hingga tebakanmu benar sehingga kamu tidak pernah salah lagi!

4. Rekamlah suaramu

Perekam suara yang terdapat di hampir setiap jenis komputer maupun telpon genggam dapat membantumu belajar kosa kata baru dengan sangat mudah dan nyaman. Rekamlah suaramu ketika mengucapkan kosa kata bahasa Inggris, kemudian diikuti dengan terjemahannya dalam bahasa Indonesia. Kamu dapat menggunakan rekaman ini sebagai ‘kartu flash bersuara’; tekan pause setelah setiap kata bahasa Inggris dan tebaklah artinya dalam bahasa Indonesia.
Apa yang harus kamu ketahui tentang kosa kata yang kamu pelajari

Mempelajari arti dari setiap kata baru hanyalah merupakan langkah pertama. Kamu harus juga mempertimbangkan hal-hal berikut ini:
– ejaan
– pengucapan
– infleksi (bentuk kata benda, kata kerja, kata sifat dan kata keterangan yang berbeda-beda)
– kolokasi (yaitu  kata lain apa yang sering digunakan dengan kosa kata tersebut)
– formal atau informal

Jika suatu hari kamu sedang duduk-duduk dan mempelajari sepuluh kata baru, kemungkinan yang terjadi adalah kamu akan melupakan sebagian besar dari kata-kata tersebut dalam waktu satu minggu. Hal ini terjadi karena kata-kata tersebut hanya tersimpan dalam memori jangka pendek. Coba untuk mempelajari ulang kata-kata tersebut setelah satu minggu. Kali ini akan lebih cepat daripada pertama kali kamu mengenal kosa kata tersebut, dan ini berarti kosa kata tersebut tersimpan di dalam memori jangka panjang dan akan dapat dengan mudah kamu ingat di masa depan.

http://kursusinggris.wordpress.com/2011/02/28/tips-belajar-kosa-kata-bahasa-inggris-yang-efektif/

Posted Maret 21, 2012 by srinurazizah in artikel

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Corruption   Leave a comment

Do you know what the meaning of corruption? What is the relation between money and corruption ? well, corruption is common everywhere in the world, even in the U.S it’s just a matter of the intensity, however, it is quite shocking when one reliable survey claims Jakarta as the most corrupt place in Indonesia. Well, I think the measures taken so far to overcome the problem by punishing the corruptors is still not far enough. We have to prevent the younger generation from getting a bad mentality coused by corruption. I believe we should start at the earliest stages in school and I think everyone should be involved in the effort to eradicate corruption . we must not make any distinctions.

 (adapted from : the Jakarta post, February 2005.Erlangga.

Posted Maret 21, 2012 by srinurazizah in Uncategorized

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Hello world!   1 comment

Welcome to WordPress.com. After you read this, you should delete and write your own post, with a new title above. Or hit Add New on the left (of the admin dashboard) to start a fresh post.

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Posted Maret 19, 2012 by srinurazizah in Uncategorized